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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Sexual practices as an important aspect of reproductive health have many physical and psychological effects on people's lives, there is limited evidence on such practices and their pattern among Iranian women. Hence we aimed to determine different types of sexual practices among 19—45 year old married Iranian women.

This cross-sectional study was conducted among married women, aged 19—45 years, attending Taleghani Public Health Center for annual gynecologic examination during November to May using convenient sampling.

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The participants were enquired about their experience regarding different types of sex, as well as their views and feelings about such practices, using an anonymous questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 34 years. All had ever experienced vaginal sex and Due to some stigma attached to non-vaginal sexual practices among women in Iran, the feelings of women with regard to different sexual practices were also examined in this paper.

This study showed that non-vaginal sex among women is considerable and Housewives looking sex Tehran of less favourable views of women towards such practices, it seems that these practices might have psychologically impacts on women's life. Hence, counseling and educational programs deed for married men and women can include some factual information about different types of sex. Human sexuality has been considered as one of the most important aspects of reproductive health and quality of life 1.

Until recently, almost all research on sexual behavior was largely focused on vaginal intercourse. Because of cultural limitations, health care providers cannot discuss oral and anal sex and their consequences explicitly with women Oral and anal sex are important, due to their association with negative sexual health outcomes, such as gonorrheachlamydiasyphilis, HPV or HIV in fectionsabnormal anal cytology and anal cancer 9 Despite the commonality of oral and anal sexual behaviors in some countries 11Housewives looking sex Tehran behaviors are considered unnatural, immoral and a taboo in some other countries including Iran Whestheimer and Lopater believe that people who participate in abnormal sexual behavior mostly suffer from feelings of inefficiency and low self-esteem A study on the sexual perception of young females in Iran demonstrated that there were misperceptions sex and oral and anal sex was considered less risky compared to vaginal sex studies conducted among adult populations have reported controversial findings regarding the prevalence of sexual behaviors.

Considering the increasing rate of oral and anal sex 18 and their negative physical and psychological impacts, estimating the prevalence of various sexual behaviors can increase awareness and help health policy makers and providers to enhance sexual health. In the present study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of some forms of sexual behavior vaginal, oral and analthe feelings of women practicing them and some factors related to these behaviors among married Iranian women, aged 19 to 45 years.

This cross-sectional study was conducted on married Iranian women aged years in to Participants were selected, using convenient sampling, among women referring Taleghani Health Center for annual gynecologic examination. All the participants were informed comprehensively about the study and written informed consent was obtained prior to their participation.

All participants were interviewed by trained staff. Of eligible women, 20 women cancelled before the interview and 3 others withdrew during the interview; complete data were obtained for women. Since there seemed to be no valid or reliable questionnaire on women's sexual behavior in Iran, researchers developed a questionnaire based on instruments used for other populations, adopted form books and articles and concepts of sexual specialists. The questionnaire contained 64 items in three sections: 1- Sociodemographic, 2- History of reproductive health and 3- History of sexual behavior.

The content validity of the questionnaire was assessed by 15 gynecologists, psychologists and sexologists. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using test-retest and measuring the Chronbach's alpha, which showed an acceptable correlation of 0. In this study, vaginal sex was defined as a penilevaginal penetration. Given oral sex was classified as any contact between the mouth, including lips and tongue of a woman and the penis of a man.

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Receiving oral sex was defined as any contact between the mouth, including lips and tongue of a man and genital of a woman. Anal sex was penileanal penetration. The demographic and reproductive characteristics of the women are presented in Table 1. As presented in Diagram 1although There was a ificant association between requests and acceptances agreeing to various types of sexual behaviors Diagram 1. The percentages of requests and acceptances to engage in anal or oral sexual practices. Feelings of women regarding practicing vaginal or non-vaginal sex are presented in Diagram 2.

Statistical analysis showed that women's educational attainment had a ificant association with doing various types of sex. As presented in Table 2receiving and giving oral sex were more common in women with higher education.

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Receiving oral sex was more common among men who had higher levels of education. Association between demographic variables and different types of sex among married women. This study was conducted to examine the patterns of sexual behavior and feelings toward them in married women attending a health care center.

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The findings showed that most women Due to the importance of being a virgin before marriage in Iranian women the rate of premarital sexual relations seems to be under reported in the participating women Moreover, it seems that women are scared of disclosing their premarital sexual experiences and prefer not discuss it, especially after marriage. Of all participants, In the study by Shirpsk et al. According to Hawkes, social and cultural milieu reported sex as being central to marital relationship; however, men have been allocated the role of initiator of sex and women the role of preserver of sexual relationships traditionally.

Women are also expected to maintain harmonious relations as part of their obligations It seems that notions and cultural beliefs in our society prevent women from expressing their sexual preferences in marital relations.

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Overall, While Henzel et al. Gindi et al. Differences in the percentages reported in various studies may be explained by differences in cultures and traditions regarding sexual behavior and difference in the study age groups. Reports on the above-mentioned prevalence of non-vaginal sexual behaviors also show that among non-vaginal sex, oral sex is more common than anal sex and also indicate a considerable percentage of women and men practice non-vaginal sex in different cultures, although it is strongly believed to be a taboo in some of these societies.

Most of the women agreed to have oral sex, although they did not enjoy it all. Shirpak et al.

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However, it appears that some cultural and social conditions, along with religious beliefs among Iranian women force them to accept to do non vaginal sex. If they refuse without any apparent reason, their husbands would have the right to deprive them of financial support The present study had some limitations. The findings were based on a convenience sample of married women. Thus, the could not be generalized to all married women in Iran.

The sample size was relatively Housewives looking sex Tehran and the study did not evaluate the association between sexual behavior with demographic or reproductive factors. In this study, we did not ask either about the first experience of oral or anal sex or about its duration and prevalence of condom use. However, the importance of ouras the first report on the sexual behavior of a of Iranian married women seems to be valuable.

More in-depth studies with larger sample sizes, such as population-based studies, are needed to further understand patterns of sexual behavior in Iran. Similar studies on married men are also suggested to be considered as well. The demonstrated that the prevalence of oral and anal sexual behavior was considerable among married women, although they have long been culturally identified as unacceptable and taboo among Iranian women and they have many psychological impacts on their lives 12 Hence, to promote sexual health, it seems that addressing different types of sex, and providing educational programs deated for married men and women through marital counseling programs by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education seems to be cruicially important.

The authors are grateful to the research staff of Taleghani Health Care Center. Special thanks are due to Mrs. Shiva for editing the manuscript. J Reprod Infertil. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Journal List J Reprod Infertil v. Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. E-mail: ri. Received May 28; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Sexual practices as an important aspect of reproductive health have many physical and psychological effects on people's lives, there is limited evidence on such practices and their pattern among Iranian women.

Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among married women, aged 19—45 years, attending Taleghani Public Health Center for annual gynecologic examination during November to May using convenient sampling. Conclusion This study showed that non-vaginal sex among women is considerable and because of less favourable views of women towards such practices, it seems that these practices might have psychologically impacts on women's life.

Introduction Human sexuality has been considered as one of the most important aspects of reproductive health and quality of life 1. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on married Iranian women aged years in to Table 1 Demographic and reproductive characteristics of the participants. Open in a separate window. Diagram 1.

Diagram 2. Feelings of married women about different types of sexual practices. Table 2 Association between demographic variables and different types of sex among married women. Discussion This study was conducted to examine the patterns of sexual behavior and feelings toward them in married women attending a health care center. Limitations of the study The present study had some limitations. Conclusion The demonstrated that the prevalence of oral and anal sexual behavior was considerable among married women, although they have long been culturally identified as unacceptable and taboo among Iranian women and they have many psychological impacts on their lives 12 Conflict of Interest There is no conflict of interest for authors.

References 1. Lindau ST, Gavrilova N. Sex, health, and years of sexually active life gained Housewives looking sex Tehran to good health: evidence from two US population based cross sectional surveys of ageing. Halperin DT. Heterosexual anal intercourse: prevalence, cultural factors, and HIV infection and other health risks, Part I. Voeller B.

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Sexual Behavior of Married Iranian Women, Attending Taleghani Public Health Center